Coronary Artery Disease

Etiology: Marked by decreased blood flow in arteries resulting from atheroclerosis caused by dyslipidemias, smoking, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and high saturated fat intake. Plaques formed can rupture resulting in a thrombus which can obstruct blood flow or break apart creating an embolus or free floating clot. Chassidy Cullum

Signs/Symptoms: Decreased blood flow and plaque formation can lead to angina, myocardial infarction and stroke. Chassidy Cullum

Method of Diagnosis: Tests include electrocaridograms, treadmill stress test, thallium scans, MRI and angiography(dye injected in heart-images taken). Chassidy Cullum

Risk Factors:
Modifiable: Obesity, hypertension, lifestyle choices: inactivity, stress, inadequate diet, and tobacco/alcohol use.
*Non-Modifiable: Genetic dyslipidemias: hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia. Menopause in women, and diabetes. ** Chassidy Cullum

Prevention: Includes limiting saturated fats in diet to less than ten percent and trans fat less than one percent daily intake. Cholesterol intake should be limited to less than three hundred mg per day. Participation in physical activity at least sixty minutes per day and obtain screening if at risk. Avoid tobacco and alcohol use. Chassidy Cullum

Supplements Commonly Used: Garlic, Vitamin E, and some B vitamins. Chassidy Cullum

Labs Appropriate to Disease:
*Normal Values Range: Lipid levels: LDL<130, HDL>60, total trigs<150, Cholesterol<200, C-reactive protein level<.6,
*Values in the Disease: Lipids: LDL>130, HDL<60, total trigs>150, cholesterol>200, C-reactive protein>1, may also have altered levels of other acute phase reactants,cytokines, and WBC counts.
*Nutritional Significance: Lipid levels can be directly correlated with fat consumption, this will require modification of these elements to obtain controllable levels.
Chassidy Cullum

General Dietary Prescription:
Decrease fat intake, reduce caffeine, sugar. Keep alcohol consumption to a minimum, (2 drinks for a man and 1 for a woman). Consume moderate amounts of whole grains, vegetables and fruits. May want to begin TLC diet because of lowering cholesterol and weight reduction. Melanie Bryant

Specific Foods to Include:
Foods which are high in dietary fiber, potassium, nitric oxide, poly and monounsaturated fats, lecthins or saponins because of the cholesterol lowering effects. Also, soy may be beneficial as well as eating fish and consuming omega 3 fatty acids. Melanie Bryant

Specific Foods to Avoid:
Certain fats must be avoided (trans fat and saturated fat). Foods that are high in grease and salt can raise cholesterol so they must be avoided. Caffeine should be limited as well as sugary foods which can exacerbate symptoms.

Reccomended Prescription Drug Therapy:
There are several different types of medications which are usually prescribed for this disease. The first category is cholesterol lowering medications which include niacin, bile acid, fibrates and statins. Medications for high blood pressure may also be used. These include diuretics, ACE inhibitors and beta blockers. Antiplatelet medicine’s may also be prescribed, such as blood thinners or aspirin. Melanie Bryant

Potential Food and Drug Interactions:
When taking ACE inhibitors patient may want to decrease sodium and calcium intake. Avoid eating natural licorice when taking ACE inhibitors. Melanie Bryant

General Nutrition Education Objectives or Goals:
Stay away from foods high in saturated and trans fat because these will likely aggravate symptoms. Regular physical activity is extremely important and should be added to the patient’s routine if not already exercising. Exercising can lower levels of triglycerides, blood pressure, increase HDL and also strengthen the heart to name a few benefits. It is very helpful in helping to manage coronary artery disease. Melanie Bryant

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License